By Russell Stothard
Shortly before Christmas, I had the pleasure of visiting Accra and Dodowa to discuss with the COUNTDOWN teams our research on DNA diagnostics. Previously, the surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis has relied upon traditional parasitological methods. This involves rather old-fashioned techniques to visualise worm eggs in stool or urine samples by light microscopy. Although pragmatic in field-based surveys, these parasitological methods are insensitive and do not precisely capture the true levels of infections.
Improving diagnostics by introduction of modern molecular methods is important for two reasons. First and at a population level, infected cases are better detected leading to more accurate reporting and subsequently better allocation of treatment. Second and at an individual level, the more cryptic associations between infection and disease are unveiled. For example, for the latter in better describing the relationship between growth stunting and STH in children or the gynaecological impact of female genital schistosomiasis in adolescent girls.
A major research theme in COUNTDOWN is to develop and strengthen the molecular diagnostic capacity within the laboratory of Dr Mike Osei-Atweneboana. Mike will also explore future synergies with the Ghanaian polio programme based in the Ngouchi Institute, Accra which regularly collects thousands of stool samples from children. Regular access to these samples and heightened scrutiny with molecular diagnostics could provide a wider platform to assess STH throughout the country.
Last September, Dr Emily Adams visited Mike’s laboratory to make a preliminary situation assessment of his equipment needs. I was there in December to assist him with further planning for a forthcoming training workshop in DNA diagnostics. This is to be held the week of 14th March in Accra and in liaison with colleagues from the Ngouchi Institute. I visited a primary school in New Abarim where ongoing deworming had just taken place. We also made a spot-check visit on the local health centre in Adausena. It is clear that future application of DNA diagnostics in these settings will shed new light on the true burden of disease.
Ahead of the workshop in March, Emily and I will be taking steps with Lucas Cunningham to develop a training manual and also assemble the necessary DNA reagents for transfer to Ghana. To make a success of the training course, I am delighted to report that Dr Jaco Verweij, the world’s expert on DNA diagnostics, will be visiting the LSTM in February to provide use with best technical advice and later also join us in Ghana to develop best clinical international standards.